The DNA paternity testing performed by DNA Diagnostics Centre is
DNA testing from a scientific perspective provides probability results of above 99% confirming that a biological relationship exists. This is called an 'inclusion'.
DNA testing from a scientific perspective provides results of 100% confirming that a biological relationship does not exist, called an 'exclusion'.
Who needs to give consent for a paternity test?
In order to protect the public’s privacy and other rights when it comes to DNA testing, legislation requiring consent has been passed by government departments. Therefore, consent is required as follows:
To test the DNA of an individual, consent from that individual is required.
If the individual is a child (below 16 years), a person having parental responsibility must give consent.
Within the DNA collection kit that you order, consent forms will be included. Simply sign the forms, and testing will proceed. When you choose DNA Diagnostics Centre to perform your DNA test, you can be assured that our laboratory will use the DNA samples only for the testing that you have requested. Your DNA samples and test results will not be released to anyone else, unless you or a court order instructs it.
When can testing be performed?
Testing can be performed before the child is born through one of 2 DNA sample collection processes, Amniocentesis or CVS.
Testing can be performed at delivery.
A person of any age can undergo DNA testing.
How do I get my results?
DNA test results are sent out 3 to 4 business days from receipt of the samples. They are in a documented report which clearly tells you if a biological relationship exists or not.
Do I need to take blood for DNA testing?
NO. DNA can be found in cheek cells in the saliva collected through
How do I know that I am collecting my samples correctly?
There is no need to be concerned over making mistakes. Our only concern is ensuring that enough cells are collected for testing. As long as you are
collecting a sample
from the appropriate person and are labelling the specimens correctly, there is no way that you could do anything to affect the DNA testing.
Does the mother need to be tested to achieve an accurate result?
We encourage DNA testing including the mother because her participation provides important genetic information that facilitates quick and straightforward analysis. However, if this is not possible, we can still perform paternity testing and provide conclusive results.
When and how do I pay?
Payment details can be completed on-line or when you send your collection kit back to DNA Diagnostics Centre. If you would like to pay when sending your kit back, we accept Cash, Cheque, and Postal Orders.
How much is it?
A Standard Paternity Test Case can cost as little as £145. Complex cases may cost slightly more. Please look at each individual test by navigating to the below link
Some cases require additional report copies for family members.
Would I be able to take a sample in the UK and another abroad and still send the kits back for testing?
Yes, we often have customer conducting part of the test in one country and the remainder of the test in another. In this instance, please request that a kit with the same serial number gets sent to both locations.
What is a buccal swab?
A buccal (pronounced 'buckle') swab looks like a long cotton bud. The head of the swab is firmer than the head of a regular cotton bud. This enables the surface cells of the cheek to be rubbed off with ease. The swab is found within the actual collection kit.
Is collection painless?
YES. The DNA testing kit contains buccal swabs, which you rub on the inside of the cheek to gather cheek cells. These cheek cells contain DNA. There are no needles involved; this is painless and non-invasive.
Is there a difference in the accuracy if you don't use blood?
Not at all. The DNA in your cheek cells or hair follicles is the same DNA as in your blood. There is no difference in the accuracy of the DNA test using one sample or the other.
Can I use cotton wool buds from Boots or another pharmacy?
No. These swabs are cotton and DNA Diagnostics Centre swabs are made of Dacron. This is a different material that helps collect more DNA prior to processing.
How long will the samples of saliva which contain the DNA remain valid?
As long as the swabs are allowed to dry, they should be ok. Although there is no guarantee that they will yield a viable sample, there is no technical expiry date on the sample. If the samples are sealed and not allowed to dry, mould will more than likely grow on the swabs and destroy the sample.
What is the Gene Pool?
The Gene Pool is all of the genetic information potentially available to an individual. Each person received half of their genetic information from their mother and half from their father. By testing a mother, child, and alleged father in a paternity test, we can account for the genetic information contributed to the child from the biological mother. The remaining half of the child’s genetic information must come from the biological father. By comparing the DNA pattern from the child with the alleged father, we can determine if the alleged father is the biological father of the child.
What is the basis for population statistics in Paternity Testing?
Each alleged father is assumed to have a prior probability of being the father equal to 50% (50/50) chance before the testing is completed. The paternity index (PI) for each probe used is a likelihood ratio and is defined as the probability that the alleged father contributed the necessary DNA to the child divided by the probability that a random man contributed the necessary DNA to a child. The PI’s for all the probes used are then multiplied together to give a combined paternity index (CPI) value. The probability of paternity (POP) is defined as 1 / (1 +1/CPI) and is multiplied by 100 to give a percentage. If an alleged father's DNA pattern does not match the child’s, then the PI for that probe is 0.
What is the Paternity Index (PI) and how is it determined?
The Paternity Index or PI gives the odds that the alleged father with a matching allele is the biological father of the tested child. The frequency of each DNA segment (allele) in the human population varies depending on the size of the allele and the race of the alleged father. The prevalence of allele sizes differs from race to race which makes knowing the race of the alleged father important for statistical analysis. Databases are available for Caucasian, Black, Hispanic, and Asian races. If the race is not certain, we will use the lowest PI of all available races. This is a conservative approach for calculating the probability of paternity (POP). The frequency of an allele is determined by how many individuals in that database have an allele size, divided by the total number of individuals in the database. The result frequency is used to calculate the PI.
How is DNA testing affected for Bi-Racial Clients?
If you are a bi-racial individual or a race for which a database is not available, calculations are done based on both races (for instance, the Caucasian (White) and Black database frequencies). The lowest PI for each probe is used to calculate the Combined Paternity Index (CPI) or POP. This results in the most conservative value for the POP.
What is a gene mutation and how does it impact paternity testing?
Genes are composed of four chemicals (nucleotides) called adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. The order of these nucleotides determines the genetic sequence. In a mutation, one or a few of these nucleotides are changed or missing in a sequence. Any DNA testing individual can have a mutation. If a mutation occurs in an area of the DNA that is being used for DNA testing, the result will be not match between a mother and a child, or between a child and an alleged father. The results in a single exclusion with one probe and the two individuals will match on all remaining probes used in the testing. When a mutation is suspected, additional probes are used in the testing to confirm a mutation has occurred and not an exclusion. The calculating of the PI and POP includes the mutation frequency of that particular probe. Exclusions are confirmed in DNA testing after two mismatches are seen.
* Standard testing is 7 to 10 days. If a mutation is observed, this will delay testing for up to 4 business days.
What DNA testing options exist if the person in question is deceased, missing, or unavailable?
Several options are possible. If the person is deceased, a viable DNA sample may be in storage if an autopsy was performed and the coroner kept the samples. A viable sample may exist if, prior to death, tissue was taken for analysis by the hospital or the laboratory. In the UK, hospitals hold this sample for a considerable period of time and the executor to the estate has the ability to request the sample for further analysis.
If no sample exists then family members such as parents, siblings, and children of the deceased can submit DNA samples for several types of DNA analysis
How can DNA testing help protect or challenge wills and estates?
DNA testing can be done to establish biological relationships when a will is challenged. Allele sizing can be done prior to death to make DNA results available at any time a challenge to the will arises based on unidentified biological relations. This is typically used for people who are high profile, wealthy, or fear their wishes will be challenged after death. Post mortem testing, DNA reconstruction, grandparentage testing, and siblingship studies can also be done to establish biological relationships.
What is involved in a genetic reconstruction case, and who needs to be tested?
If one party is deceased or unavailable, other family members can provide a DNA sample to help reconstruct the DNA the person in question could have contributed. Multiple family members are necessary including parents, full or half siblings, or children of the person in question. The cost of the genetic reconstruction is dependent upon the number of family members available for testing. DNA Diagnostics Centre should be consulted for further questions regarding reconstruction by calling 0845 408 2084.
What is a grandparent DNA test?
Grandparents are a great option for DNA testing if the alleged parent is unavailable. The grandparents contributed all the genes to their child, the alleged parent. Thus the grandparents will match their grandchild with the same accuracy as the alleged parent.
What is involved with a siblingship study?
If the alleged father is not available for testing but has known children, those children could be tested with the child in question to determine if that are full or half siblings. The mother or mothers of the tested children are also requested to submit a DNA sample if they are available.
How is DNA testing used in adoption cases?
Paternity testing to accurately identify birth fathers is becoming a more common request by adoptive professionals and parents to solidify the proceedings. Although adoption processes vary, efforts to locate birth fathers for parental relinquishments have become a higher priority since such publicised cases as the Baby Richard case. The paternity testing serves as proof that the accurate birth father has been located and is participatory in the proceedings.
Medical advances in linking biological causes for diseases and serious medical conditions also encourage the need to identify the birth father. Without the birth father’s identification, half the child’s medical information is unknown and may not be traceable at a later date when needed.
What is the indication for Maternity DNA Testing?
Similar to the procedure for paternity testing, the alleged mother is tested along with the child in question. Recent publicised cases of babies switched at birth have necessitated implementation of procedures in the event this should occur. By comparing the DNA pattern of the child with the alleged mother, we can determine if the alleged mother is the biological mother of the child.